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The Stockholm Metro, or Stockholms tunnelbana, is the metro system in Stockholm, Sweden. The system has three main lines and one hundred stations, 47 of which are subterranean and 53 are aboveground (surface and elevated) stations.
The first part of the metro was opened in 1950, when an underground light rail line opened in 1933 was converted to metro standard. This line ran south from Slussen station. Over the following years, this line was expanded to three lines going south from the inner city. In 1952 a line from the inner city to the western suburbs was opened. In 1957 the two line were connected via the central station and old town. This system consisting of three lines now forms the Green line. The Red line was opened in 1964 with two lines going from northeast to southwest. The final system, the Blue line, was opened in 1975 with two lines going northwest from the city center. The latest addition to the Green Line was carried out in 1994.
Stockholm's metro is well known for its decoration of the stations; it has been called the longest art exhibit in the world. Several of the stations (especially on the Blue line) are left with the bedrock exposed, crude and unfinished, or as part of the decorations. At the Rissne station, an informative wall fresque about the history of Earth's civilizations runs all along both sides of the platform.
The metro system is owned by the Stockholm County Council, which presently has contracted the operation to Connex. The Stockholm Metro was the site of distribution for the first edition of Metro, now a world-wide chain of free newspapers.
- The Green line has 49 stations: 12 subterranean (9 concrete, 3 rock) and 37 aboveground stations. The track is 41,256 metres long. It was opened 1 October 1950 (between Slussen and Hökarängen stations).
- The Red line has 36 stations: 20 subterranean (4 concrete, 16 rock) and 15 aboveground stations. The track is 41,238 metres long. It was opened 5 April 1964.
- The Blue line has 20 stations: 19 subterranean (all rock) and 1 elevated station. The track is 25,516 metres long. It was opened 31 August 1975.
|10||Kungsträdgården – Hjulsta||1975-08-31||15.1 km||14|
|11||Kungsträdgården – Akalla||1977-06-05||15.6 km||12|
|13||Norsborg – Ropsten||1967-09-02||26.6 km||25|
|14||Fruängen – Mörby C||1973-09-30||19.5 km||19|
|17||Åkeshov* – Skarpnäck||1958-11-19||19.6 km||24|
|18||Alvik – Farsta strand||1957-11-24||18.4 km||23|
|19||Hässelby strand – Hagsätra||1951-09-09||28.6 km||35|
The system mainly uses 271 modern carriages, but there are also around 200 1970s and 1980s carriages. A full length train has up to eight old, or three new carriages. The length is therefore 140 metres. The older carriages, types C1–C15, are 17.62 m long, 2.8 m wide and 3.8 m high. They weigh between 20 and 30 tonnes and hold 48 seated passengers (384 passengers in an 8 carriage train). The trains normally operate with six or eight carriages.
The majority of the older carriages have now been replaced with the Vagn 2000 (type C20), introduced in 1998. These normally operate with 2–3 carriages; one C20 carriage is 46.5 metres in length, double-articulated and holds 414 passengers. The older trains can occasionally be seen during rush hour on the red and blue lines. Only carriage types C6, C9, C14 and C15 are still in use. These carriage types are collectively referred to as Cx.
A crowded train carries between 1,000–1,200 passengers.
The maximum speed is 80 km/h on the Red and Blue lines, 70 km/h on the Green line (50 km/h at the platforms). Maximum acceleration and deceleration is 0.8 m/s².
To allow close-running trains with a high level of safety, the Tunnelbana uses a continuous signal safety system, which involves information being sent to the train's safety system continually. The signal is picked up from the running rails through two antennas placed in front of the first wheel axle and compared with data about the train's speed. Automatic braking will be triggered if the train exceeds the maximum permitted speed at any one time. The driver is given information about the speed limit through a display in the driver's cabin; in C20 stock, and in Cx stock outfitted for operation with the new signal system installed on the Green line, this is a speedometer with a red maximum speed indicator (needle), while the traditional display in the Cx stock is a set of three lights indicating one of three permitted speeds (High, Medium, Low). The system allows two trains to come close to each other but prevents collisions occurring at speeds greater than 15 km/h. More modern systems also ensure that stop signals are not passed.
Another possibility is ATO, which helps the driver by driving the train automatically. However, the driver still operates the door controls and allows the train to start. ATO is currently only available on the Green line, where a new signal system was installed in the late 1990s. This signal system, together with the C20 rolling stock, permits the use of ATO.
Since the mid-1980s the Stockholm Metro has been seriously affected by graffiti. Previously, a train on which graffiti had been painted could remain in service for weeks, and graffiti could remain in place at stations for months, if not for years. Nowadays, however, trains with graffiti are immediately taken out of service, and graffiti at stations is regularly cleaned up within a few days. The cost of graffiti and other types of vandalism is calculated at an annual cost of around 100 million Swedish crowns.
During the 1990s, the Stockholm Transit System (SL) started to employ personnel from various private security firms. Some of these security firms have been accused of using unlawful methods such as plain clothes guards and of brutal treatment of arrested vandals. Since 2005, the Stockholm police has assigned a special task force (Klotterkommissionen) to deal with the problem.
- T-Centralen - metro station
- Geography of Stockholm
- Per Johansson
- Silverpilen - the ghost train
- List of rapid transit systems
- Stockholm Transport - Official site. Page is in Swedish, but click on "In English" to reach an English-language edition of the site.
- Stockholm - at UrbanRail.net
- Photo of the Vagn 2000
- Underground Productions Swedish graffiti magazine focusing mainly on the Stockholm subway