The Philadelphia and West Chester Traction Company was a transportation company which operated steam dummy trains, and later streetcars, between Philadelphia and West Chester, Pennsylvania.

The company was incorporated in 1895, combining the Philadelphia and West Chester Turnpike Road Company (which had built a plank toll road in 1848 between the two cities named in its title) and the Philadelphia Castle Rock and West Chester Railway (which had built the steam dummy line and opened it earlier that year). Its line was electrified the next year. In 1899 the line from Philadelphia to West Chester was completed.

The company controlled the Delaware County Passenger Railroad from its incorporation in 1895, and leased the Ardmore & Llanerch Street Railway and the Philadelphia and Garrettford Street Railway Company until 1936, when a reorganized company, the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company, took over P&WCT and all its leased operations.

In 1923, the P&WCT established the Aronimink Transportation Company as a bus subsidiary.

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