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The Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, more commonly called MARTA, is the largest public rapid-transit system (in both size and ridership) in the Atlanta metropolitan area, and the ninth largest in the United States. MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a heavy rail rapid transit system consiting of 48 miles (77 kilometers) of track with 38 train stations. As of 2006, the system has an average weekday ridership of 451,064 passengers. The MARTA acronym is pronounced as a single word, not as individual letters.

MARTA is funded and operated by the City of Atlanta, Fulton County, DeKalb County and ClaytonCounty. As a result the MARTA system only operates within the boundaries of the City of Atlanta, Fulton County, DeKalb County, with bus and future rail in Clayton County and additional limited bus service to Cobb County.

MARTA is the largest United States transit agency not to receive state operational funding. The other two largest counties in the metro Atlanta area, Cobb and Gwinnett, have refused to join or fund MARTA and as a result both have independent transit agencies which connect to MARTA. The continued refusal of neighboring counties to participate and the lack of state funding for operation of MARTA has limited the ability for a truly regional transportation system to be formed in Atlanta.


MARTA was originally proposed as a rapid transit agency for the five largest metropolitan Atlanta counties: DeKalb, Fulton, Clayton, Gwinnett, and Cobb counties. MARTA was formed by an act of the Georgia General Assembly in 1965. In the same year, four of the five metropolitan area counties (Clayton, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett) and the City of Atlanta passed a referendum authorizing participation in the system, but the referendum failed in Cobb County. Although a 1968 referendum to fund MARTA failed, in 1971, Fulton and DeKalb Counties successfully passed a 1% sales tax increase to pay for operations, while Clayton and Gwinnett counties overwhelmingly rejected the tax in referendum, fearing the introduction of crime and "undesirable elements".[1] In 1971, the agency agreed to purchase the existing, bus-only Atlanta Transit Company and on February 17, 1972 the sale was completed for US$12.9 million giving the agency control over all public transit.

Construction began on the MARTA system in 1975, with the first rail service commencing on June 30, 1979. The system has since built most of the proposed rail lines, as well as stations in Sandy Springs and North Springs which were not included in the original plan. The missing rail segments include a Tucker-North DeKalb line with service to Emory University and North Druid Hills, a Northwest line with service to Brookwood and Northside Drive, extension of the West line to Brownlee-Boulder Park near Fairburn Road, extension of the Proctor Creek line to Perry Homes, and a branch off of the south line to Hapeville.[2]

MARTA systemEdit

MARTA is comprised of both heavy rail transit and bus transit that operate within the boundaries of Fulton, DeKalb , and Claytoncounties. A recent notable exception is that effective November 20, 2006, MARTA is offering bus service to Cobb County's Cumberland Boulevard Transfer Center on one bus route.[3] For fiscal year 2006, the average weekday ridership was 451,064. Overall for the year, bus and paratransit ridership was 69,194,285 while rail ridership was 69,209,027.[4]

As of 2005 MARTA had 4,300 employees including 1,085 full time bus drivers and 184 full time rail operators.[5] Rail and bus operators, station agents, rail maintenance technicians and many other front line support personnel are represented by Amalgamated Transit Union Local 732.

MARTA maintains its own police force, which is currently headed by Chief Wanda Dunham. MARTA has been named the safest transit system in the United States seventeen times.[6]

Heavy rail networkEdit

MARTA rail is comprised of two service lines, the North-South line (orange) and the East-West line (blue). The lines connect at the Five Points station. Trains are operated using Automatic Train Control, with one MARTA train operator to make announcements and operate the doors. Many suburban stations offer designated free daily and paid long term parking in MARTA operated park and ride lots. These stations also have designated kiss and ride passenger drop off parking spaces closest to the station entrance.

Rolling stockEdit

  • 101-200: CQ310 class. Built by Franco-Belge, 1979-1981
  • 501-520: CQ310 class. Built by Franco-Belge, 1979-1981, originally single unit cars.
  • 201-320: CQ311 class. Built by Hitachi, 1984-1987
  • 601-700: CQ312 class. Built by Breda, 2001-2003

MARTA has entered a contract with Alstom to rebuild all CQ310 and CQ311 cars (238 Rail Cars in total). The rehabilitated cars will feature upgraded passenger amenities and upgraded propulsion and train control hardware. The first rehabilitated cars began service March 12, 2006. The refurbishing program will last until 2008-2009.[7]


MARTA's bus system serves a wider area than the rail system, serving areas in Fulton and DeKalb counties such as the cities of Roswell and Alpharetta in North Fulton, along with South DeKalb. As of 2006, MARTA has 120 bus routes, including 5 blue flyer express shuttle routes.[8] Effective November 20, 2006 MARTA now has one bus route providing limited service in Cobb County (Route 12 has been extended to Cobb County's Cumberland Boulevard Transfer Center).[9][10] All of the MARTA bus lines feed into or intersect MARTA rail lines as well. MARTA also runs shuttles for special events, such as the Peachtree Road Race and Atlanta Braves baseball games. MARTA shuttle service is also available to Six Flags Over Georgia during the park's summer season.

In addition to the free parking adjacent to many rail stations, MARTA also operates Park and ride lots serviced only by bus routes:

  • Windward Parkway
  • Mansell Road
  • Stone Mountain
  • Barge Road
  • South Fulton

For some time, MARTA had "secret" bus routes in the 700 series. These routes were designed to connect maids, home health care workers, and nannies from MARTA rail stations to their work sites. These routes were not officially noted in any system map except for a small footprint instructing people who needed transit service in that area to contact Customer Information.[11] No schedules were publicly distributed, and no information was published on the web site. In 1999, the routes were officially "declassified" and information was published. As part of system-wide service cuts, the 700 series routes were eliminated in 2002.[12]

Paratransit serviceEdit

In compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, MARTA provides paratransit for those persons defined as disabled by the ADA. MARTA uses special lift equipped vehicles for this service and can either deliver passengers to their final destination (curb to curb service) or can deliver the passenger to the closest accessible bus stop or rail station (feeder service). In fiscal year 2006 MARTA provided 289,258 paratransit trips.[13]

The average cost to MARTA for providing a one way trip for an individual paratransit passenger is US$31.88.[14] This is much greater than the US$3.50 fare the paratransit rider is required to pay. The Americans with Disabilities Act forbids MARTA from changing a paratransit fare more than twice the normal fixed route fare.

Paratransit is limited to existing rail and bus routes and cannot extend more than a 0.75 mile radius from any existing route. Paratransit service is only provided during the hours of the fixed route servicing the area. An application for acceptance into the paratransit service is required; reservations are required for all users for each trip.

Fare structure and operationEdit

MARTA offers both single one-way fares (with free bus to rail and rail to bus transfers) and discounted weekly and monthly passes. The fare structure is as follows:[15]

  • Single one-way fare: US$2.50
  • Single one-way paratransit fare: US$3.50
  • Ten (10) one-way trips: US$25.00
  • Twenty (20) one-way trips: US$42.50
  • Weekly pass (Monday-Sunday): US$23.75
  • Monthly pass (one calendar month): US$52.50
  • Weekend pass (Friday-Sunday): US$9

Discounted programs available to select users:

  • University monthly pass (UPASS) program: US$40 (Students) US$49.50 (Faculty/Staff)
  • Student weekly pass program: US$10 (K-12 students in DeKalb and Fulton Counties)
  • Half-fare program: US$0.85 one-way (Passengers over 65 and MediCare recipients)

Special routes, such as the Atlanta Braves shuttle and the Hi-Fi Buys Amphitheater have an additional US$1 surcharge for each one-way trip. Out of district routes (Six Flags Over Georgia shuttle service) have an additional US$0.75 surcharge. MARTA has recently proposed ending the Atlanta Braves and Six Flags shuttle surcharges effective April 28, 2007 and is currently in the process of holding public hearings on the issue.[16]

Effective January 2006, disabled riders who are paratransit eligible can ride fixed bus and rail routes for free.

Additional discounts are available to corporate partners who sell monthly MARTA passes to employees and also to groups and conventions visiting Atlanta. Some employers (at their own expense) also provide reduced cost or free MARTA passes to employees to encourage the use of public transportation.

Breeze CardEdit

Main article: Breeze Card

MARTA has finished implementing the "Breeze" smart card electronic fare collection system in September 2006, replacing the previous token-based fare collection system. The new Breeze Card allows riders to load money on the card for use over time, and to add weekly/monthly passes that are not fixed to a calendar period. The system uses a two card scheme: the Breeze Ticket is used by people who are visiting and other light users, and is composed of coated paper around the RFID antenna. The Breeze Card is meant for those who use MARTA frequently and need to load time-based passes. The new Breeze fare gates are designed to help prevent fare evasion; with the older fare collection system fare evasion was much easier and was estimated to cost MARTA US$10 million per year.[17] Other connecting transit systems such as GRTA Xpress, CCT have adopted the infrastructure, and are currently building implementation plans.

MARTA stopped selling tokens after the Breeze conversion, but magnetic non-smart card weekly and monthly MARTA cards continue to be sold (until spring 2007).

Hours of operationEdit

MARTA operates 365 days a year. Rail service is provided from approximately 5 a.m. to 1 a.m. Monday through Friday and 5 a.m. to 12:30 a.m. on weekends and holidays, and during certain events (New Year's Eve) trains run 24 hours. Weekday train frequency is 10 minutes on branch lines and 5 minute frequencies on trunk lines. Late night (after 7:00 pm) and weekend frequency is reduced, with train frequencies of 15-20 minutes on all lines. Bus routes have varying frequencies depending on passenger demand.

Fare reciprocityEdit

Through formal fare reciprocity agreements, MARTA riders are able to transfer for free to four other metro Atlanta transit systems: Gwinnett County Transit, Cobb Community Transit, and GRTA Xpress. Some of these agreements require that neither system have significantly more transfers than the other. MARTA has stated that this is the case, that inbound (to MARTA from another system) and outbound (from MARTA to another system) transfers are approximately equal (for second quarter 2006 8,888 daily passengers transferred inbound and 8,843 transferred outbound).[18] However, it has been noted that workers traveling in the morning to Atlanta from another system will more than likely make the return trip home, resulting in the appearance of an equal number of transfers. Analysis of morning transfers (5 to 9 am) to MARTA shows that Cobb County had 718 inbound transfers but only 528 outbound, Clayton county had 928 inbound but only 424 outbound, Gwinnett County had 239 inbound and 269 outbound, and GRTA Xpress had 1,175 inbound but 615 outbound.).[19] These data suggest that more people from the other systems benefit from free transfers than those living in the MARTA service area.

MARTA fundingEdit

In addition to fare collections, the MARTA budget is funded by a 1% sales tax in Fulton and DeKalb counties along with limited federal money. By law, funds from the 1% sales tax must be split evenly between MARTA's operations and capital expendatures budgets. This restriction does not apply to other sources of revenue, including passenger revenue.[20] The split was written into MARTA legislation at MARTA's formation with the rationale that MARTA should continue expanding and investing in the system. However, MARTA has no active rail construction projects; as a result the capital funds enjoy a large surplus whereas the operations funds limit the amount of service MARTA provides. The sales tax law was amended by the state legislature in 2002 to allow a temporary three year 45% capital/55% operations split[21]. This additional 5% for operations expired in 2005. A bill to renew the split was tabled by the legislature's MARTA Oversight Committee, forcing MARTA to pass a new budget with cuts in service. In addition a fare increase was considered; however, MARTA board members voted down a fare increase and instead used cash reserves to make up for the operations shortfall. The temporary 45/55 capital/operations split was renewed again in the 2006 state legislative session. The capital funds surplus has resulted in projects, such as a new US$100 million Breeze Card fare collection system and US$1.1 million automatic toilets in the MARTA Five Points station, occurring at the same time that MARTA is struggling to pay for bus and rail operations.[22]

MARTA has never received any operational funding from the State of Georgia, making it the largest public transportation agency in the United States not to receive state funding for operational expenses.[23] The State of Georgia has however contributed limited funds MARTA's capital projects (for FY 2006 this amount was less than 1 percent of the total revenue sources for capital funds).[24]

Two of Metro Atlanta's inner suburban counties, Gwinnett, and Clayton initially agreed to join MARTA but refused membership when voters in their respective counties voted against paying to help fund the system. These two counties along with Cobb County have instead created their own independent bus systems: Cobb Community Transit on July 10, 1989, Gwinnett County Transit on November 5, 2001 , and Clayton County C-TRAN on October 1, 2001. However, C-TRAN ceased operations on March 31, 2010. A separate regional bus transit service, Xpress, is operated by the Georgia Regional Transportation Authority in partnership with 11 metro Atlanta counties inluding Fulton and DeKalb, which began service on June 6, 2004.

MARTA GovernanceEdit

MARTA is governed by a Board of directors consisting of the following members:

Positions on the MARTA Board of Directors are directly appointed by the organizations they represent. Although the state of Georgia does not contribute to MARTA's operational fuding, it still has voting members on the MARTA board. A similar situation exists for both Clayton and Gwinnett counties; as a consequence of passing the authorization referendum but not the funding referendum, Clayton and Gwinnett Counties have representation on the MARTA Board of Directors without paying into the system. This situation became controversial in 2004 when Gwinnett's representative Mychal Walker was found to have accepted US$20,000 from a lobbyist trying to secure a US$100,000,000 contract with MARTA. Despite the controversy, as well as a MARTA board ruling that Walker violated the MARTA ethics policy, the Gwinnett County Commission initially failed to remove Mr. Walker from his position on the MARTA Board.[25] Eventually the state legislature was called upon to change the law governing MARTA's Board to allow for the removal of a member whose appointing county did not act on a request for removal.[26] Before the new law could be used, Mr. Walker was arrested on an unrelated child support violation, which resulted in his firing by the Gwinnett County Commission.[27]

The highest employee at MARTA is the General Manager/CEO. In September 2006, Richard McCrillis was named the new General Manager after having served since January 2006 as Interim General Manager. McCrillis was chosen after the other finalist for the job withdrew his application. McCrillis has worked at MARTA since 1985.[28] Prior to McCrillis, MARTA's General Manager was Nathaniel Ford from 2000 to 2006. In January 2006 Ford offered his resignation to take a position as the Director of Transportation of the San Francisco Municipal Railway.[29]

The Georgia General Assembly has a standing MARTA Oversight Committee, which is frequently abbreviated MARTOC. This committee is charged with financial oversight of the MARTA organization. State legislation concerning MARTA must pass through this committee. The current chairperson of the committee is Representative Jill Chambers.


All performance data are for the 2005 fiscal year:[30]

  • Customer Satisfaction: 79%
  • Rail Mean Distance Between Service Interruptions: 9,493 miles (15,274 kilometers)
  • Rail On Time Performance: 91.64%
  • Bus Mean Distance Between Failures: 3,301 miles (5,311 kilometers)


MARTA has had two fatal accidents which resulted in a formal investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board:

  • On February 25, 2000 a train near Avondale station struck two automatic train control technicians who were inspecting a relay box; one was fatally injured and the other technican suffered serious injuries. The workers had failed to apply for a safe clearance restriction for the track work. In addition the rail system center controller, who was aware of the workers, failed to notify train drivers of the technicians' presence.[31]
  • On April 10, 2000 a train struck a bucket lift containing two contract workers at Lenox station; the workers were fatally injured. Although the MARTA employee who was accompanying the workers notified the rail control center of the work over the track, the control center employee failed to block off the section of the track in the automated rail control system and also failed notify the unscheduled southbound train of the workers presence.[32] In 2001 MARTA settled with the families of the two killed workers for US$10.5 million.[33]

In addition to these accidents MARTA trains have derailed four times in recent years. The most recent incident occurred at the Medical Center station on December 4, 2006 when a train carrying passengers was moved over a switched portion of the track. No injuries were reported.[34] A previous derailment occurred in July 1996 during Atlanta's hosting of the Olympics. A paired car on a train which had developed mechanical problems was uncoupled from other cars at Indian Creek station (the last station on the east line). The train began rolling, crashing through the bumper at the end of the rail line and running off of the track. The train operator, the only person on board, received minor injuries.[35] In June of 1996 a minor derailment occured at the junction between the North and Northeast lines; MARTA estimated 150 people were aboard.[36] The derailment occured when a rail supervisor told the train driver to reverse the train after realizing the train had gone the wrong way at a track split; a MARTA invesigation of the incident showed the derailment caused $125,000 of damage to the train and track and caused injury to 16 passengers.[37] And in August 1994 a minor derailment occured at a switch between Candler Park and Inman Park. Approximately 20 passengers were on board and no one was injured.[38]

Future expansion plansEdit

Template:Future public transportation Although MARTA has no active expansion projects, several projects are currently being studied by MARTA:

  • North Line Expansion: Potential construction of additional heavy rail from North Springs station to Windward Parkway)[39]
    Potential Sites (along near GA 400):[40]
  • West Line Expansion: Expansion of MARTA service to Fulton Industrial Boulevard through the use of both heavy rail extension and Bus rapid transit.[41]
  • I-20 East Corridor: Bus rapid transit from downtown Atlanta to the Mall at Stonecrest[42]
  • Inner Core (Belt Line and C-Loop): The use of light rail and possibly bus or trolley service on existing railroad right of ways inside the perimeter[43]. The conversion of existing rail right-of-way to the proposed Belt Line also calls for the creation of three additional MARTA rapid transit stations where existing lines intersect the Belt Line at Simpson Road, Hulsey Yard, and Murphy Crossing.
  • Memorial Bus Rapid Transit: Implementation of bus rapid transit from the former Avondale Mall to the MARTA Park and Ride Lot in Stone Mountain. This project has moved to the environmental study stage, with an implementation timeline of 2008[44]

Additional expansion plans for MARTA and other metro Atlanta transportation agencies are detailed in Mobility 2030 a timeline by the Atlanta Regional Commission for improving transit through the year 2030.

Criticism and concernEdit

Financial SupportEdit

Since the formation of MARTA, the Georgia state government has never contributed to MARTA operational funding, and currently MARTA is the largest mass transportation system in the United States not to receive state funding.[45] Revenue from the Georgia motor fuel tax is currently restricted to roads and bridges and cannot be used for public transportation, further complicating potential sources of state funding for MARTA.[46] In addition many other suburban counties, such as Gwinnett, Clayton and Cobb counties, have refused to join or fund MARTA (see history, above). Due to its limited funding from Fulton and DeKalb counties, MARTA has struggled to provide adequate service to the metropolitan area, and as a result, MARTA has gained a reputation for being ineffective and inconvenient. Many people who own cars avoid using the system, and residents in suburban areas usually must still drive to a MARTA station to ride a train. MARTA's financial structure (being tied to a 1% sales tax) has forced the agency to cut services during times of economic depression, further resulting in complaints about the inconvenience and inadequacy of MARTA services.

Although surrounding counties do not pay for MARTA, many of their residents use MARTA by driving directly to a MARTA station or by using a county or regional bus system which connects to MARTA. A license plate study from 1988 to 1997 showed that 44 percent of the cars parked in MARTA park-and-ride lots were from outside of Fulton and DeKalb counties. Current fare reciprocity agreements also allow non-paying counties to provide bus service for their residents which provide free connections to MARTA (see fare reciprocity). Sixteen percent of MARTA riders live outside of DeKalb and Fulton counties.[47]

Racial ConcernEdit

Because of its location in the American Southeast, with its long history of troubled race relations, it is often argued that racial politics also play a role in the operation and future service planning for MARTA. The acronym is sometimes referred to as "Moving Africans Rapidly Through Atlanta" due to the relatively low number of White, Hispanic, or other Non-African riders in general, particularly after peak commuting hours.[48] A 1999 MARTA rider survey revealed that 78 percent of MARTA riders are African American.[49] As mentioned before, Cobb and Gwinnett counties initially rejected MARTA at inception and to this day, some predominantly White suburban communities have opposed MARTA expansions, believing it will be a pipeline to bring unwelcome minorities and/or crime from the city of Atlanta into their communities. Many Caucasian riders also express their unhappiness and discontent with the MARTA rail line due to perceptions that they are common or preferred targets for being accosted and/or potentially robbed in or around MARTA stations themselves.

Opponents of Georgia's transportation policies have alleged a race-based two-tiered system, where billions are spent by the state to aid commutes of mostly Caucasian residents of the suburbs, while service cuts at MARTA have hurt mostly African Americans.[50]

Reliability of ServiceEdit

As is typical of rail transit in the United States, MARTA's rail lines have two parallel tracks. Any train failure or track work results in shared use of the other track by trains going opposite direction, a situation known as single-tracking. There are no plans at this time to expand the number of tracks. MARTA is currently nearing the end of a complete replacement of tracks on all rail lines. Over the past few years, this replacement work has caused the agency to implement single tracking on the weekends, which in turn has caused weekend patrons to experience less frequent service.

In the Summer of 2006, as a result of high summertime temperatures, many MARTA rail cars became overheated, damaging onboard propulsion equipment. As a result many trains broke down and had to be taken out of service for repair. This was further compounded by the fact that at any given time up to 50 older rail cars are out of service as part of MARTA's rail car rehabilitation project. To compensate for fewer cars MARTA shortened trains from 6 cars to 4 cars in length. Sometimes this resulted in almost half of the trains being shortened, resulting in crowded conditions for passengers.[51] The breakdowns and overcrowded conditions may have contributed to a drop in customer satisfaction in the most recent customer survey (72% were very satisfied or satisfied with MARTA, a 7% decline from the prior survey).[52]

MARTA GovernanceEdit

The composition of the MARTA Board of Directors is also criticized. The State of Georgia, Gwinnett and Clayton Counties do not support MARTA financially, but still have positions on the MARTA Board of Directors. Additional criticisms of the MARTA Board is that they are not elected, and thus not accountable to the citizens whom they represent. Furthermore, the Board members are also criticized for not being regular users of MARTA and thus are not actually aware of the concerns of MARTA commuters.

As the metropolitan area grows the Georgia Department of Transportation has looked to greater road infrastructure to manage traffic problems. Most notably, a proposal for the widening of I-75 will put up to 23 lanes of traffic into the city. The city of Atlanta, however, has started a push for new mass transportation systems, such as a proposed Belt Line and a streetcar line up Peachtree Street. The Georgia Department of Transportation even plans to build a commuter rail line from Lovejoy, Georgia to Atlanta, and there is considerable support for an Athens-Atlanta line dubbed the Brain Train because it will connect the University of Georgia, Emory University, Georgia State University and the Georgia Institute of Technology. Several people have called for a new metropolitan planning committee to manage transportation, but for the time being transportation planning is split among different county and state agencies.

MARTA financesEdit

In 2006 internal and external audits of MARTA corporate spending revealed personal charges on a pair of MARTA credit cards used by former General Manager and CEO Nathaniel Ford and two of his secretaries. Ford charged nearly US$150,000 over his five years tenure at MARTA on the cards.[53] Ford stated that many of the charges were business-related expenses such as meals and drinks at restaurants and trips to industry conventions across the country. But other charges were clearly not business related, including US$454.00 at a golf pro shop, US$335.00 in clothing from Men's Wearhouse and a US$58.00 visit to the dentist.[53] MARTA determined Ford had previously reimbursed the authority for about US$10,500.00 in personal expenses charged to the cards. In response to the 2006 audit, Ford sent MARTA a check for an additional US$1,000.00 of personal expenses.[53] Rick Simonetta, MARTA's general manager from 1994 through 1999, also used the cards, but that use was never a problem according to Ed Wall, chairman of the MARTA board.[53] Additional credit card with charges involving two of his secretaries, Iris Anthony and Stephannie Smart were also questioned. Smart used the cards to pay approximately $6000.00 in private expenses, and has agreed to repay this amount to MARTA. Both Ms Smart and Ms Anthony left MARTA shortly before Mr Ford resigned.[53]

See alsoEdit

References Edit

  1. Bullard, R. D. et al. (2000) Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta, Washington DC, Island Press, p57. ISBN 1-55963-790-0
  2. Marta Provisions for Future Expansions
  3. November 20, 2006 MARTA Press Release
  4. MARTA 2006 Annual Report
  5. 2005 MARTOC report
  6. MARTA Visitor Safety
  7. MARTA Rail Car Rehabilitation Media Kit
  8. MARTA 2006 Annual Report
  9. November 20, 2006 MARTA Press Release
  10. Howell Mill Bus Route
  11. MTUT story
  12. MARTA announces route cuts
  13. MARTA 2006 Annual Report
  14. Georgia Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities Five Year Strategic Plan
  15. MARTA Fares
  16. Marta public hearings on proposed bus service modifications for April 28, 2007
  17. Donsky, Paul. MARTA Plugs Gap in New Station Gates Atlanta Journal Constitution February 22, 2006 pg 4B.
  18. MARTA Customer Development Committee Minutes, March 20, 2006
  19. MARTA Customer Development Committee Minutes, March 20, 2006
  20. 2006 MARTOC Report
  21. Marta History
  22. Donksy, Paul. MARTA flushes in new era with 12 self-cleaning toilets. Atlanta Journal Constitution July 19, 2006.
  23. Wall, Michael. Waiting for a ride: The racial reality behind MARTA's downward spiral Creative Loafing April 19, 2006.
  24. 2006 MARTOC report
  25. Hairston, Julie. Transit board member back on job after ethics trouble; status unclear. Atlanta Journal Constitution November 30, 2004.
  26. Hairston, Julie. MARTA seeks rules change; Board wants state to alter removal process. Atlanta Journal Constitution December 7, 2004.
  27. Smith, Ben. Duluth jeweler, developer named to MARTA board Atlanta Journal Constitution July 20, 2005.
  28. MARTA (2006-09-25). MARTA BOARD OF DIRECTORS NAMES MARTA GENERAL MANAGER. MARTA Press Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
  29. MUNI (2006-10-24). MUNI General Information. MUNI. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
  30. MARTA FY2005 Annual Report
  31. NTSB Abstract RAB-03/03 Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) train 103 striking technicians fouling the track Near MARTA Avondale Station in Decatur, Georgia February 25, 2000
  32. NTSB Abstract RAB-03/02 Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Unscheduled train 166 striking bucket of self-propelled lift containing two contract workers MARTA Lenox rail transit station in Atlanta, Georgia April 10, 2000, about 2:30 a.m.
  33. Ippolito, Milo. MARTA pays $10.5 million in workers' deaths. Atlanta Journal Constitution December 5, 2001.
  34. Donsky and Morris. MARTA back on track after derailment Atlanta Journal Constitution December 4, 2006.
  35. Monroe, Doug. MARTA driver injured when two cars derail. Atlanta Journal Constitution July 25, 1996
  36. Kim, Lilian. MARTA officials say accident a 'fluke'. Atlanta Journal Constitution June 2, 1996.
  37. Goldberg, David. Derailment probe cites bad decisions; Three MARTA employees were suspended and two managers face disciplinary action as a final report confirms MARTA's explanation that 'human error' was to blame. Atlanta Journal Constitution June 18, 1996.
  38. Kim, Lilian. MARTA officials say accident a 'fluke'. Atlanta Journal Constitution June 2, 1996.
  39. MARTA North Line Corridor Study
  40. Kaplan, Paul. MARTA reveals rail stop finalists; Northern extension depends on funding. Atlanta Journal Constitution October 22, 2006.
  41. MARTA West Line Alternatives Analysis / Draft Environmental Impact Study
  42. MARTA I-20 East Corridor Study
  43. MARTA Inner Core (Beltline / C-Loop) Study
  44. MARTA Memorial Drive Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Project
  45. Wall, Michael. Waiting for a ride: The racial reality behind MARTA's downward spiral Creative Loafing April 19, 2006.
  46. Bullard, R. D. et al. (2000) Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta, Washington DC, Island Press, p52. ISBN 1-55963-790-0
  47. Bullard, R. D. et al. (2000) Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta, Washington DC, Island Press, pp58-59. ISBN 1-55963-790-0
  48. McCosh, John. MARTA calls on marketers for image aid; Can soft drinks fill empty seats? Atlanta Journal Constitution February 11, 2001.
  49. Bullard, R. D. et al. (2000) Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta, Washington DC, Island Press, p58. ISBN 1-55963-790-0
  50. Michael Wall (2006-04-19). Waiting for a ride. Creative Loafing, Atlanta. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
  51. Donsky, Paul. MARTA riders crowd heat-diminished fleet. Atlanta Journal Constitution September 12, 2006.
  52. Harris, Lyle. OUR OPINIONS; MARTA needs to focus on results. Atlanta Journal Constitution September 19, 2006.
  53. 53.0 53.1 53.2 53.3 53.4 Ryan Mahoney (2006-08-18). Ex-MARTA CEO abused credit cards. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.

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